Stanley Greenspan on
following the child's lead:
"... a child's interests or
the child's lead is the
window to their
emotional life. Through
the child's interests;
through the child's
natural desires, we get a
picture of what is
enjoyable; what is
joyful; what is
pleasurable for that
child... So we follow
their lead at the entry
point because the first
goal is to join them in
their world, but not to
stay in their world with
them, and pull them into
a shared world where
they are a part of the
world with us... but we
don't want to pull them
in screaming and yelling
and yipping. We want to
pull them in with real
warmth and pleasure.
We want the child to
want to be in the shared
world and that's the key."
(excerpt from a
Web-Based Radio Show
on September 2, 2004:
Floortime(TM): What it
Really Is and What it
What is DIR/FloortimeTM ??
This model of play therapy is based upon the work of the late
Stanley Greenspan, M.D. The original Floortime model allowed
the child to lead activities based upon his/her natural
interests in addition to challenging the child in ways that
further social and emotional development.
The DIR Floortime
TM Model extends beyond individual
therapy using the original Floortime model and may include
home-based interventions involving peers and family
members, and educational programs.
Development (D), individual differences (I), and relationships
(R) are the primary focus in this approach to therapy. Areas
of focus for further
development include attention,
self-regulation, ability to interact appropriately with others,
communication, creative thinking, and problem-solving. The
individual differences refer to biological differences in how
we absorb, process, and respond to sensory information in
the environment.
Relationships refer to the affect-based
interactions between the child and all those who play a
significant role in the child's life.
 At our center, we consider Floortime(TM) to be a valuable
approach to use in conjunction with other therapeutic
modalities that are appropriate for the individuals and
families that we treat, according to the particular concerns
at hand. More information can be accessed about
Floortime(TM) at The effectiveness and
efficacy of this approach has been explored by experts in
the field. The following research articles can be accessed
online for your reference:

Hess, Esther B. DIR(R)/Floortime(TM): Evidence based practice towards the
treatment of autism and sensory processing disorder in children and
adolescents. Int J Child Health Hum Dev 2013;6(3).

Pajareya, K., Nopmaneejumruslers, K. A pilot randomized controlled trial of
DIR(R)/Floortime(TM) parent training intervention for pre-school children
with autistic disorders. Autism, 2011; 15(2).

Pilarz, K. Evaluation of the efficacy of a seven week pulic school curriculum
based DIR(R)/Floortime(TM) parent training program for parents of children
on the autism spectrum. ProQuest(R) Dissertations and Theses, 2009.

Solomon, R. Pilot study of a parent training program for young children with
autism: The PLAY Project Home Consultation program. Autism, 2007; 11(3).

DeWaay, R.J. Parents' perceptions of treatment effectiveness in a
DIR(R)/Floortime(TM) Home Intervention. ProQuest(R) Dissertations and
Theses, 2011.